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Danish Mycological Society

Summary SVAMPE 41 - 50.

SVAMPE 1-10 - SVAMPE 11-20 - SVAMPE 21-30 - SVAMPE 31-40 - SVAMPE 41-50 - SVAMPE 51-60

The hurricane and the fungi - Erik Rald - 41:1-6.
A survey is given of the situation following the worst hurricane damage in Denmark this century. An estimated 3.4 million m3 of wood came down, mostly spruce in plantations but also thousands of deciduous trees. This leads to the following recommendation: Leave as much hardwood as possible where it fell, not least in sites with an ancient hardwood history such as important areas for redlisted species including Jægersborg Dyrehave N of Copenhagen. An important site for fungi like Gyromitra parma and G. fastigiata, Allindelille Fredskov, has been enriched with 15 big fallen beech trees. Donated by nature and by the committee for this protected site.

Sulphur Polypore (Laetiporus sulphureus) on oak and other deciduous trees - Flemming Rune & Iben M. Thomsen - 41:7-12
Sulphur Polypore is described as the most important heart rot fungus in oak in Europe. Its history, taxonomy, distribution, global host preferences, micro- and macromorphology, decay characteristics, conditions of infection and control potentials, are reviewed from about 35 references. The risk of human intoxications by eating the fruitbodies is discussed and construed as possible allergic reactions.

Introduction to fungi on decaying wood - Jacob Heilmann-Clausen & Morten Christensen - 41:13-25.
An introduction is given to fungi occurring on decaying wood. The role of fungi in the process of wood decay is emphasised with reference to overall decomposer community structure and nutrient cycling. Further, various infection strategies and mycelial interactions in dead wood are described and various key-factors determining fungal community structure in decaying wood are discussed. These key-factors are classified as internal factors linked with wood quality (tree-species, dimension and decomposition stage) and external or environmental factors determined by macro- and microclimate and forestry practice. The greatest importance is assigned to the factors associated with wood quality. Based mostly on own observations, the macrofungal succession on decaying beech logs is described with reference to five defined stages of decay.

Ascocoryne sarcoides and A. cylichnium and their ecological preferences - Morten Christensen & Jacob Heilmann-Clausen - 41:29-33.
Two lignicolous species of Ascocoryne are presented. Studies of decomposing beech logs showed differences in the occurrence (as sporocarps) of the two species. Ascocoryne sarcoides was recorded only on recently dead, slightly decomposed logs, while A. cylichnium appeared to prefer greatly decomposed logs. A list of known hosts in Denmark is given, based on collections examined by the authors.

Notes on rare fungi collected in Denmark - Jan Vesterholt (red.) - 41:34-41.
The first find of Scutellinia setosa is reported from Denmark.
Pyrenophora phaeocomes is reported from Festuca rubra, a new host for the species in Denmark.
Tricholoma acerbum is reported from Denmark for the fourth time. Earlier Danish records are commented.
Stropharia aurantiaca and S. rugosoannulata, both growning on wood chips, are reported for the first time from Denmark.

VII journées mycologiques de la CEMM 1999 - Pia Boisen Hansen - 41:44-50.
A report from the VII journées mycologiques de la CEMM 1999 listing personal highlights.


Tricholoma equestre, characteristics and look-alikes - Morten Christensen - 42:1-4.
Tricholoma equestre is one of the most delicious among Danish edible mushroom species. It is mostly found on very sandy soil and can be confused with few other species. T. aestuans is very similar and may be found in the same type of habitat but has a more umbonate cap and an acrid taste. T. sulphureum smells strongly of sulphur or gas and rarely grows on very sandy soil.
A variety, T. equestre var. populinum (T. flavovirens ss.auct.), was described recently growing under deciduous trees (Populus), having smaller spores and a more scaly cap.

Notes on rare fungi collected in Denmark - Jan Vesterholt (red.) - 42:8-10.
Poronia erici is reported for the first time from Denmark. It was found on hare dung on the island Møn.
Xylobolus frustulatus is reported for the third time from Denmark.
Dacryonaema rufum is reported from dry Picea branches in the central part of Jutland (NEW: The collection has been identified different, please do not cite this record).
Albatrellus pes-caprae is reported from Denmark for the second time.

Boletus edulis, field-marks and look-alikes - Jan Vesterholt & Pia Boisen Hansen - 42: 11-16.
Boletus edulis is one of the most popular among Danish edible mushroom species. It is described and compared with the closely related species B. reticulatus, B. pinophilus and B. aereus and with the non-edible Tylopilus felleus. Suggestions for collecting and cooking are provided.

Danish species of Nemania, Euepixylon and Kretzschmaria - Thomas Læssøe, Jacob Heilmann-Clausen & Morten Christensen - 42: 17-29.
The occurrence of Nemania, Euepixylon and Kretzschmaria species in Denmark is mapped and discussed in an ecological context. The paper is for a large part based on Granmo & al. (1999), but a number of new records are cited. Especially N. chestersii is considered an important indicator of high quality ancient woodland. N. serpens is by far the most common species with 18 host genera recorded, whilst N. effusa, carbonacea, diffusa, aureolutea and colliculosa are rare to very rare. N. effusa would appear to be a boreal element, whilst N. carbonacea seems to be a southern-continental element.

Poisonings in Denmark caused by fungi in 1998-99 - Karsten Jensen - 42: 30-31.
Reports are given on poisonings caused by fungi in 1998 and 1999. Two out of six persons died after consumption of Amanita phalloides.

Fungi on beech logs ­ indicators of habitat quality - Jacob Heilmann-Clausen & Morten Christensen - 42: 35-47.
The rarity of many wood inhabiting fungi in Denmark is discussed, considering aspects related to habitat quality, island biogeography and stand continuity. It is concluded that factors relating to substratum type, size and decomposition category are crucial for the funga on individual pieces of coarse woody debris (CWD). In turn, the same factors affect the biodiversity of wood-inhabiting fungi at locality level. However, at this level also biogeographical aspects (amount of CWD, distance to other localities with substantial amounts of CWD etc.) are of importance, together with CWD and forest continuity at the regional level.
The possibility of using wood inhabiting fungi as indicators of habitat quality is discussed and a number of species are suggested as indicators of biodiversity associated with CWD rich beech stands in Denmark.

Serpula himantioides and Calocera viscosa as the cause of butt rot in a stand of Pseudotsuga menziesii - J. Koch - 42: 48-52.
The storm 3.12.99 caused a scattered fall of 50 trees in a stand of 46-year-old Pseudotsuga menziesii in Geel Forest north of Copenhagen, Denmark. 64% of the stumps showed butt rot. The most frequent fungi were Serpula himantioides (50%), Heterobasidium annosum (50%) and Calocera viscosa (19%). Serpula himantioides was the most damaging fungus, in several cases causing heavy decay in the basal 2 m of the stems. In addition, serious decay caused by Serpula himantioides was found in a 70-year-old larch (Larix decidua) and a 70-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies). This is the first report from Denmark of butt rot in standing trees caused by Serpula himantioides and Calocera viscosa.

Nitrogen deposition and decline of fungi on poor and sandy soils - Jan Vesterholt, Willem A. H. Asmen & Morten Christensen - 42: 53-60.
The levels of nitrogen deposit show considerable regional variation in Denmark, and the factors responsible for this pattern are briefly discussed. Several species of mycorrhizal fungi growing on poor and sandy soils have shown a serious decline in Denmark. The changes in the geographical distribution patterns of Bankera fuligi-neoalba, Hydnellem aurantiacum, H. ferrugineum, H. peckii, Phellodon tomentosus and Tricholoma focale are compared to the levels of nitrogen deposition. It appears that the six species in question largely have disappeared from all areas with an annual deposit exceeding about 15 kg N/ha/year. This supports the assumption that eutrophication by nitrogen deposition could be an important causal factor in the decline of a group of mycorrhizal fungus species on poor and sandy soils.

A new truffle on the market - Christian Lange - 43: 1-5.
During the nineties, Tuber indicum Cooke & Mass. was introduced as a culinary speciality on the European markets. A short presentation of the species is given and the culinary value of T. indicum and T. aestivum is discussed. Two "collections" of Chinese truffles bought in shops around Christmas turned out to be two different species, one T. indicum, the other still unidentified. The discussions regarding possible problems in introducing non-native species upon native species, especially regarding economically important local/indigenous species, are presented.

Status of Tuber aestivum in Denmark - Christian Lange - 43: 6-8.
The distribution of Tuber aestivum in Denmark based on earlier and recent collections is presented. It is now known from a total of seven localities, all situated in the southeastern part of the country, in rich deciduous forests or parks on clayey or limestone soils. The main host trees seem to be Oak, Beech and Lime. The possible distribution range of the species in Denmark is discussed. Two localities in Denmark with names like "the truffle orchard" have been registered, perhaps referring to former truffle collecting. The readers are encouraged to take care of these rare fungi and not heavily exploit their localities.

In the footsteps of F.H. Møller - Pia Boisen Hansen - 43: 9-13.
F.H. Møller's publications and unpublished note-books and aquarelles were the natural place to start before updating the knowledge of the funga in the Danish county Storstrøms Amt. A regional red-list is in preparation.

2000, a good year to find rare fungi? - Benny Christensen - 43: 14-18.
Last year was a good year in Denmark for many species of fungi. In western Jutland Cantharellus cibarius was found in many localities where it has not been observed for many years. It is proposed that the year 2000 also offered good opportunities to localize many of the "hidden mycelia" of rare fungi where fruit-bodies only are produced under adequate climatic conditions. In that way, the records from 2000 could be a good starting point for a more systematic registration of rare and threatened fungi.

What is Cortinarius glaucopus? - Thomas Stjernegaard Jeppesen & Tobias Frøslev - 43: 19-25.
Descriptions and illustrations are given of C. glaucopus and the related species C. caesiogriseus, C. camptoros and C. dionysae. C. caesiogriseus and C. camptoros are reported as new to Denmark, but C. dionysae has not yet been recorded as Danish. The colour variation of C. glaucopus and C. camptoros is discussed, but is not considered as being of taxonomic importance.

Hygrocybe psittacina, a strikingly variable fungus - David Boertmann - 43: 29-32.
Hygrocybe psittacina shows considerable variation in macroscopic characters. A single fruit-body may change colours during its development, and between mycelia the range of colours and stature is wide. Here I present the variation based on my own finds and on correspondence with other mycologists as well as information from the literature.
The common type, H. psittacina var. psittacina, always shows bright green colours at least at the top of the stem (figs. 1, 3, 6 and 7). A small variety growing in fixed dunes is characterised by very small fruit-bodies (cap diameter less than 1 cm) and by an olive tinge both in the generally yellow fruit-body and in the green parts.
There are several types without green coloration. H. psittacina var. perplexa is brick red on the cap, often with greyish or brownish patches (fig. 8). H. sciophanoides has a pink cap and whitish stem. A small, Mycena-like type, only encountered once, has ochre yellow cap and gills and a stem with pink colours (fig. 2). A bluish type has also only been found once (fig. 5). Another striking type has brownish to lilac cap, greyish gills and a whitish to ochre stem (fig. 4). Hygrophorus psittacinus var. californicus has been described from California based on its bluish colours instead of green.
What determines this wide variation mainly in colours is not known. Some may be due to individual variation, some to edaphic factors (e.g. the small type from the fixed dunes) and some may be genetic (e.g. H. psittacina var. perplexa).

The web-site of the Sjælland division of the Danish Mycological Society - Anne Storgaard - 43: 34-35.
The local society of Sjælland which is a division of The Danish Mycological Society, has launched its web-site on http://home.worldonline.dk/~e_slot/index.htm in the summer of 2000.

Notes on rare fungi collected in Denmark - Jan Vesterholt (ed.) - 43: 38-42.
Aurantioporus croceus is reported from Denmark for the first time since 1937. It was found in the same forest from which it was reported earlier.
Gomphus clavatus is reported for the first time from Sjælland since 1913.
Tricholoma luteovirens has been found in two localities in the recent years, in one of these localities it was found in large numbers.
Cortinarius sulfurinus var. fageticola is reported for the first time from Denmark.
Correction: The specimens reported and illustrated in Svampe 42 as Dacryonaema rufum have been studied by Anne-Elise Torkelsen and identified as Ditiola radicata.

Amicodisca, a genus with two beauties - Seppo Huhtinen & Thomas Læssøe - 43: 43-47.
Descriptions of two discomycetes, the rediscovered Amicodisca virella and a new species A. svrcekii (Hyaloscyphaceae), are given and their ecology discussed. The Finnish collections cited are the first since the original material collected by Karsten 130 years earlier. Also material from easternmost Russia is cited and the new species (to be published in Czech Mycology) is recorded from Finland and Germany. It differs from A. virella in its distinctly smaller spores but is otherwise very similar, as also can be seen from the two colour plates. Based on the present material, Amicodisca species would seem to have a strong preference for watersoaked hardwood, often located on the banks of rivers or lakes. One collection (from Kamchatka) of A. virella is from a dry site on the underside of a Betula trunk. When first located, Amicodisca species may be almost as conspicuous as the ubiquitous Bisporella citrina.

Hemitrichia serpula, rediscovered after 200 years? - Thomas Læssøe & Mikkel Kemp - 43: 51-54.
The first two collections from Denmark of Hemitrichia serpula are reported from a birch and alder dominated bog, where many other interesting myxomycetes and fungi have been recorded. The hitherto accepted Danish record of H. serpula, dating back 201 years (June 1800, locality not known), named by Fries based on a drawing by Schumacher, can not be accepted after detailed inspection of the original drawing (not the redrawn, altered version in Flora Danica). It is suggested that Schumacher's material represents a myxomycete sclerotium of the type Badhamia utricularis produces.


Mycology in the twentieth century - Jens H. Petersen - 44:1.
A spectrum of prominent Danish mycologists have answered the question: What was the major mycological break-through of the twentieth century? The answers are presented on the following 26 pages.

Ectomycorrhiza ­ large fungi and large trees - Morten Lange - 44: 2-5.
Is the understanding of mycorrhiza the most important mycological discovery of the century? Morten Lange rewievs the history and importance of mycorrhiza.

Sequencing ­ the major break-through in the 20th century´s mycology - Lene Lange - 44: 6-9.
The sequencing of genes is the most potent and hottest technique discovered in the 20th century. By now several whole fungal genomes including those of Saccaromyces and Neurospora have been sequenced, and more are to follow rapidly. The next step will be to combine these new data with the traditional knowledge to expand our biological understanding of the fungi.

The good, the bad and the ugly - Suzanne Gravesen - 44: 10-13.
The significance of moulds to public health is discussed. On the good account is the production and use of penicillin and similar antibiotics. On the bad side are allergy towards mould conidia, and even worse toxic effects of fungal metabolites.

Antimycotics ­ agents against fungi - Jørgen Stenderup - 44: 14-15.
Last centurys progress in treatment of mycotic infections is summarized.

Biodiversity and chemical diversity in filamentous fungi - Jens C. Frisvad - 44: 16-20.
Penicillin was one of the most important discoveries in the last century. Other secondary metabolites are not just important as medicine and aroma components or dangerous toxins to be avoided, they can also be used in classification and identification. It is suggested that secondary metabolites are among the most important factors in systematics, evolution and ecology. The enormous diversity in secondary metabolites is very pronounced in fungal ascomycetous genera such as Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Alternaria.

The gene-for-gene relationship - Eigil de Neergaard - 44: 21-23.
The gene-for-gene concept developed by H. H. Flor is used to explain the relationship between plant parasitic fungi and their hosts. According to this concept a gene in the parasite has its counterpart gene in the host plant. As both can exist in two states there are four theoretical combinations, each uniquely determining the progress of the interaction between the two parties i. e. the disease development.

The fifth kingdom - Jens H. Petersen - 44: 24-27.
The conceptual evolution from the original Plantae/Animalia dichotomy through "lower" and "higher" fungi and "the five kingdoms" to nineties´ eight-kingdom-model is summarized.

About collecting fungi as documentation of interesting finds - Jan vesterholt - 44: 29-34.
The importance of collecting material of interesting finds is mentioned, and advises are given on how to collect paying regard to rare species. The importance of providing good field notes and precise geographical information is underlined, and the GPS-navigator is introduced as a very useful appliance to mycology.

Impressions from the Danish Mycological Society's Mallorca foray year 2000 - Henny Lohse & Tove Laxholm - 44: 46-49.

Virgin forests and montaneous grasslands, mycological impressions from Slovenia - Morten Christensen - 44: 50-54.
Slovenia is a country with several interesting habitats for fungi. Rather unique are the small areas of virgin forest with beech and silver fir in the southern part of the country containing large quantities of dead wood. Several wood inhabiting fungi rare and threatened in Europe seem to have a stronghold here. Also semi-montaneous grasslands in northwestern Slovenia are of very high mycological quality. Long continuity in traditional hay cutting and cattle grazing provides excellent habitats for grassland fungi like Hygrocybe and Entoloma species. The status of protection of fungi in Slovenia is discussed, and the threats to the grassland are pointed out as a major challenge for the Slovenian fungus conservation policy.


Large boletes with red pores - Jan Vesterholt & Mogens Holm - 45: 1-10.
Boletus purpureus is reported as new to Denmark, being the sixth large bolete with red pores known from the country. B. luridiformis and B. luridus are often collected for culinary purposes, while B. satanas, B. legaliae and B. purpureus are considered poisonous. The species are illustrated and described with emphasis on separating characters. The paper includes B. queletii and non-Danish B. rhodoxanthus.

Tinder Fungus – new knowledge about a well-known fungus - Simon Skov - 45: 13-18.
Sporulation and growth of the fruitbodies of Tinder Fungus (Fomes fomentarius) varies during the year being most intense in April and May tapering of towards the end of June with a period of more moderate intensity from the middle of August to the end of November. With a newly constructed spore sampler, made by the author, it was shown that most spores do not disperse more than 5 meters from a source. When further than 25 meters from a source the spore content in the air is usually about 6 spores/m3 and is typically a mix of spores from several sources. Removing one of these will not influence the spore concentration significantly. The diagrams show all trees with F. fomentarius fruit bodies in the municipal forests of Århus, Denmark, in Silkeborg Vesterskov, and in a few other forests, correlated to the age of the infected beech trees. It is seen that F. fomentarius very seldom infects trees under 135 years of age. It is also shown that only some stands between 135 and 235 years of age become severely infected. Stands older than 235 years are almost always infected, but as there are fewer trees per ha, the number of trees per ha. with fruit bodies is also reduced. It is concluded that F. fomentarius is not at threat to otherwise healthy Danish beech stands younger than 135 years.

Fungi in oak scrubs in Jutland - Jan Vesterholt & Morten Christensen - 45: 33-42.
Spruce and pine plantations (both introduced to Denmark) are the dominant forest types in central, northern and western Jutland, but oak scrubs are still widespread, and they are believed to be relics of old forest. Generally, the oak scrubs have been strongly influenced by man, typically as coppice forests, though not in recent times. Besides Quercus, Populus tremula, Sorbus, Frangula and others may rather be considered natural elements in this forest type. The soil in the region is mainly poor and sandy. This paper summarizes studies of the funga of 56 oak scrubs. The most frequently found species are listed. The majority of Danish redlisted species found in oak scrubs are lignicolous, and lignicolous species seem to be better indicators of valuable localities than soil- and litter-inhabiting species.

Notes on rare fungi collected in Denmark - Jan Vesterholt (ed.) - 45: 43-48.
Auricularia mesenterica is reported as new to Denmark. It was found in a park in eastern Jutland, apparently on a stump of Ulmus. Hygrocybe calyptriformis was found for the second time in Denmark on October 14, 2001 in Salling, Northwest Jutland. The first record was from 1979. Leucopaxillus compactus is reported from its second Danish locality and for the first time since 1950. Tricholoma inamoenum is reported from the central part of Jutland in 2000. It was the first find in this part of the country since 1962. Even though Tricholoma umbonatum originally was described by J.E. Lange from Danish material, a recent record from Lolland is the first Danish record since 1909.


A popular guide to Russula species growing with conifers - Jan Vesterholt - 46:1-25.
28 species of Russula growing with coniferous trees in Denmark are presented and illustrated. Species which both grow under coniferous and deciduous trees, are generally included, but not species from deciduous forest which only exceptionally may be found with conifers in Denmark. Characters which are important for identification of Russula species are discussed, but with emphasis on field characters.

Guidelines for potential fungus twitchers - Jacob Heilmann-Clausen - 46:26-35.
The paper discusses the twitching syndrome (hunting rare species) in relation to fungi and the author finds that looking for rare fungi can have a meaningful purpose. Important data can fx be obtained in relation to the conservation of important sites. Some habitat types in some parts of the country are rather poorly investigated, and visiting such places might lead to new and interesting finds. It is pointed out what to look for in the landscape, when searching for the rarities and how detailed information on sites can be obtained (fx aerial photographs available on the Internet). The author recommends searching for new sites but also recommends visiting classical sites in order to prove the continued presence of a rare species.

Is Tricholoma equestre poisonous? - Morten Christensen - 46:38-39.
12 persons in Southern France have been reported poisoned after repeated consumption of Tricholoma equestre. Three of these have died. The symptoms are tiredness, muscle soreness, severe convulsions, sweating and nausea. The responsible toxin is still unknown. Until more detailed information is available, it is recommended not to consume large quantities of T. equestre.

Fungi and beetles - Palle Jørum - 46:40-53.
Close relationships exist between fungi and beetles. About 12 per cent of approximately 3700 known Danish species of beetles feed directly on fungi. Many others are indirectly dependent on the presence of fungi for instance because they live in them as predators eating larvae etc. For many beetles living and breeding in wood the softening following fungal degrading is essential in order to make the wood accessible to the beetles. Some fungi benefit from beetles spreading their spores, especially beetles living in wood. The paper gives detailed information about these and other beetle-fungus relations and gives examples of the species participating in them. It has been suggested to use a number of rare wood inhabiting fungi as indicators of habitat quality. Likewise, it has been shown that the occurrence of some rare beetles attached to old deciduous forest may be used for the same purpose. Possibly, an improved basis of evaluation of habitat quality might be achieved by combining the two methods.


World-wide commercial cultivation of edible mushrooms - Flemming Rune - 47: 1-14.

The cultivation history is outlined of the six mushroom genera cultivated in the largest quantities. Updated statistics (1999) are presented 1) on the total commercial mushroom production in 29 countries, 2) on the production of the 11 most frequently cultivated genera in selected countries, and 3) on the development in total world-wide production 1950-1999. Agaricus bisporus is still leading with a production of 2.05 million tons, followed by Lentinula edodes with 1.45 million tons, and Pleurotus spp. with 1.17 million tons. The production of Auricularia spp., Flammulina velutipes, and Volvariella volvacea altogether amounts to another 1.08 million tons. The total world production of edible mushrooms is estimated at 6.4 million tons. China is today by far the largest producer and exporter, accounting for more than 60% of the world production.

The genus Thelephora in Denmark - Jens H. Petersen & Jan Vesterholt - 47: 35-42.

The six Danish species of Thelephora are described and illustrated. T. atra is reported as new to Denmark. It was found on clay in a rich deciduous forest.

Notes on rare fungi collected in Denmark - Jan Vesterholt (ed.) - 45: 43-48.
Nemania maritima is reported as new to Denmark. This is a surprise, since all three known records came from Taiwanese mangroves. The Danish material occurred on a range of host trees all fallen down onto beaches. Most trunks were weathered, decorticated and often with algal films. The author has seen similar material from an English seaside locality.
Leccinum populinum is reported from three localities in North Zealand, where it grew under Populus spp. It is a species belonging to section Leccinum with dark red cap and red to black scales on the stem. It is probably not rare in Denmark, but it may previously have been confused with other species of section Leccinum.
Suillus plorans is reported from two localities in Copenhagen, where it grew in a garden and a park under Pinus wallichiana, a species originating in the Himalayas. Suillus plorans appears to be a rather heterogeneous species; the Danish finds resemble the most common form growing with Pinus cembra in the Alps as well as forms growing with Pinus sibirica in the Altai Mountains and with Pinus wallichiana in Nepal.
Armillaria ectypa is reported for the fifth time in Denmark and for the first time in 20 years. It was found at the margin of a calcareous spring.


History of the Danish Mycological Society (1) ­ 1905-1925 - Flemming Rune - 48:1-17.
The Danish Mycological Society was founded in 1905 by a medical practitioner Christoffer Mundt (1844-1925), a young dentist Hjalmar Madelung (1874-1948), and the director of the Copenhagen Zoo Julius Schiøtt (1856-1910). The world famous zymologist Emil Christian Hansen (1842-1909) joined the board, and guided most field trips in the beginning with Dr. Mundt, who was elected president of the society during the first 20 years. From 1912 the two mycologists Carl Ferdinandsen (1879-1944) and Øjvind Winge (1886-1964) edited the society's first periodical and elaborated the first Danish field guide to macrofungi with descriptions, illustrations and keys to 539 species. Most members primarily sought social intercourse in the society from the beginning, but in the hard times during the first world war many new members attended the society to learn to collect edible mushrooms in the forests. The membership rose to a temporary maximum of 432 in 1919.

Wood inhabiting fungi in Jægersborg Deer Park - Morten Christensen & Jacob Heilmann-Clausen - 48:23-40.
Jægersborg Deer Park North of Copenhagen was established as the King's hunting reserve in 1669. Since then the forest has been managed mostly for its beauty, and a remarkable number of old beech and oak trees have been preserved. Today, the area is known for its very high number of rare wood inhabiting fungus species. The ecology and distribution of 50 species are discussed with emphasis on their habitat requirements. Recommendations for future management aimed at ensuring the unique funga are provided.

Phlegmacium species with girdled stipe and no bulb - Tobias Guldberg Frøslev & Thomas Stjernegaard Jeppesen - 48:41-60.
16 species of Cortinarius subgen. Phlegmacium sections Phlegmacium, Multiformes and Elastici are presented and illustrated of which six occur in Denmark. Cortinarius maculosus is reported as new to Denmark with its northernmost record yet. The main emphasis is on species occurring or potentially occurring in Denmark and closely related species. The delimitation towards resembling species from section Phlegmacioides is discussed. The descriptions are focused on differential characters between closely related species. The very narrow species concept of Moënne-Loccoz et al. is rejected. Cited material will be deposited in C.


History of the Danish Mycological Society (2) – 1925-1945 - Flemming Rune - 49:1-15.
The two professors Øjvind Winge (1886-1964) and Carl Ferdinandsen (1879-1944) were elected presidents of the Danish Mycological Society during the years 1925-1944. In that period the Society passed three significant mycological milestones: 1928: completion of the first comprehensive field guide to larger fungi in Danish with keys and illustrations of more than 500 spp., 1932: initiation of the mycological journal Freisia (continued until 1987), and 1935-1940: printing of Jakob E. Lange’s impressive colour plate work, Flora Agaricina Danica, in five volumes with almost 1200 species illustrated. The latter was co-published by the Danish Botanical Society. During the depression in the 1930’s the membership declined to only slightly above 300, but during WW II everything changed. An expressed quest of friendly gathering, combined with a few exuberant mushroom seasons and a lot of publicity after two tragic mushroom poisonings, raised the membership to 671 in 1945. Many mushroom forays arranged by the Society had more than 140 participants. In 1944 professor Niels Fabritius Buchwald (1898-1986) replaced Ferdinandsen as president of the Society after having acted as a dynamic secretary for almost 20 years.

Cantharelles are found when the strawberrys ripen - Jens H. Petersen - 49: 28-33.
That “Cantharelles are found on poor ground under deciduous and coniferous trees and best in august or september” seems to be the common wisdom of the avarage Danish mushroom books. Contrary to this, Cantharellus cibarius is best gathered in late june or early july in old, coastal dunes with Calluna and Pinus.

15 minutes with elm, or was it three days - Thomas Læssøe - 49: 36-37
15 minutes were spent by one person investigating a fallen stand of rather exposed elm (death caused by Dutch elm disease) in a nature reserve situated in the northern part of Sjælland, Denmark. The investigation took place in November following a cold and frosty October. Fruit bodies were identified and/or collected and random samples of wood and bark were collected. Three days were used by the same person to scan and determine the material in the lab. The result was a list of 21 more or less determined Basidiomycota and 27 Ascomycota (incl. anamorphic states). Most species encountered are regarded as generalists on dead hardwood but a few would appear to be partial to elm including Hypochnicium vellereum.

Notes on rare fungi collected in Denmark - Jan Vesterholt (ed.) - 49: 38-44.
Dennisiodiscus prasinus is reported as new to Denmark based on a collection from leaf litter of Glyceria maxima.
Sarawakus britannicus is reported from Denmark for the first time based on a collection on decayed conifer wood in a recently planted forest west of Copenhagen.
Sarcodontia crocea is reported on old apple trees from Denmark for the first time. The status as extinct on the the Danish red list was a case of misidentification of M.P. Christiansen’s 1956 records of ?Mycoacia squalina. The Danish site is a southern, small locality with many old trees (ancient woodland), including many presumed wild apples, and grazed with cattle. The locality holds a number of other interesting terricolous and lignicolous species. The European distribution is reviewed. In the north the fungus is now known from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Germany, The Netherlands and England, but it is considered threatened in all these countries. In Estonia it is listed as extinct.
Marasmius minutus (syn. M. capillipes) is reported as new to Denmark based on two collections from Salix leaves.
Phyllotopsis nidulans is reported for the first time since 1977. The species has an eastern occurrence in Denmark and the new site fits this pattern.

Hunting for virgin forest fungi - Jacob Heilmann-Clausen & Morten Christensen - 49: 45-52.
In October 2003 the authors visited the Poloniny National Park in the eastern-most part of Slovakia together with the Slovakian mycologists Slavomír Adamcík and Viktor Kucera and Ruben Walleyn from Belgium. The aim was to visit virgin beech forest remains and study the associated mycota. A high number of rare and interesting fungi were encountered, including Steccherinum murashkinskyi, which was recorded as new to Slovakia and Ionomidotis irregularis, which had not been seen in the country for more than 15 years. Several rare species were found in abundance, including Dentipellis fragilis, Hericium coralloides, Ischnoderma resinosum, Ceriporiopsis gilvescens, Ceriporiopsis pannocincta, Hohenbuehelia auriscalpium, Ossicaulis lignatilis, Phlebia nothofagi and Trametes cervina and they appear to be typical virgin forest fungi in this region. Surprisingly, even the „taiga-species“ Phlebia centrifuga was abundant in pure beech forests. At slightly higher altitudes Silver-fir occurs abundantly. This tree species hosted a very different wood-inhabiting mycota including Bondarwezia montana, Cyphella digitalis, Hericium flagellum, Panellus violaceofulvus and Sparassis nemeci, which were all encountered during our visit.
Based on our experiences from Slovakia and other European beech forest reserves, a revised, but still preliminary indicator system for habitat quality in European beech-forests is presented. Compared to the earlier Danish system (Heilmann-Clausen & Christensen 2000) several species have been omitted for different reasons, while four new species have been included in order to make the system more appropriate for use in other regions of Europe.

Svampe 50

History of the Danish Mycological Society (3) – 1945-1980 - Flemming Rune - 50:1-21.
The end of World War II brought many changes to the Danish Mycological Society. Transport restrictions introduced during the German occupation were gradually removed, the shortage of printing paper for the journal Friesia soon ended, and the popular forays to southern Sweden (Scania) were resumed. The membership stabilized about 550, and professor Niels Fabritius Buchwald was elected president during the years 1944-1969. In the 1950’s several major, macromycological works written by members were published, though most of them not by the society for financial and editorial reasons. F. H. Møller presented his large monograph of Agaricus in 1950-51, Morten Lange published his pioneer studies on intersterility methods used on Coprinus in 1952, Anders Munk completed his flora of the Pyrenomycetes in 1957, and M.P. Christiansen revised the Danish resupinate fungi in 1959-1960. Furthermore the first macromycete floras of the Faeroe Islands and Greenland were elaborated by F. H. Møller and Morten Lange 1945-1958. In 1959 the board of the society broke up due to disagreements about the management and editing of the journal, and for some years the society was somewhat isolated from the university mycology. In 1969 the forest pathologist Jørgen Koch replaced Dr. Buchwald as president of the society, and during the 1970’s many new activities were introduced, e.g. drop-in meetings every Monday during the season, long forays over the weekend to distant localities every year, and large exhibitions every second year. In the late 1970’s the membership almost doubled to 1100, the journal Friesia ceased to appear, and the present journal Svampe was introduced in 1980.

Correction - Morten Christensen & Jacob Heilmann-Clausen - 50: 22.
Due to an editorial mistake the photograph in Svampe 49, p. 50 did not show Phlebia nothofagi as stated in the legend, but atypical specimens of Dentipellis fragilis. The correct illustration is shown here.

Shaggy Parasol on the move - Phylogenetic studies of species of Macrolepiota and allied genera - Christian Lange & Else Vellinga - 50: 23-42.
Based on recent molecular phylogenetic studies by one of the authors (EV) a presentation of the results concerning the genus Macrolepiota is given. Macrolepiota in the normal sense is now divided into two genera, Macrolepiota and Chlorophyllum, and one of the most well-known edible species is transferred to Chlorophyllum, Macrolepiota rachodes, from now on known as Chlorophyllum rachodes. The classical interpretation of Chl. rachodes comprises three species: Chl. rachodes, Chl. brunneum and Chl. olivieri, the latter apparently quite common in the region. “Macrolepiota venenata” has been reported from Denmark, but the records are regarded as doubtful. Macrolepiota nympharum was shown to belong to Leucoagaricus. All species of Macrolepiota & Chlorophyllum occurring in Scandinavia and surrounding countries are presented with short descriptions; a key to all species is given.

Fungi on water vole faeces in Denmark - Mita Sengupta & Thomas Læssøe - 50: 43-51.
38 samples of water vole (Arricola terrestris) faeces from a locality on Sjælland, Denmark were incubated in moist chambers and all fungi (except anamorphs) were identified as far as possible. Results from a single sample from Møn were included in the analysis. 19 species were recorded (see table 1). Schizothecium tetrasporum and an unidentified member of the Zygomycota were the most dominant species recorded. Ascobolus rhytidosporus and Podospora curvicolla are new Danish records. It is expected that only part of the fungal diversity on this substrate has been found in this study. Operculate discomycetes were only recorded in the sample from November. No Coprinus species and no loculoascomycetes were recorded.

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